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Transportation is the largest single cause of air pollution in the US.

Transportation is the largest single cause of air pollution in the US.

Dirty vehicles and dirty air
More than half of the carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and over a quarter of the hydrocarbons that were released into our atmosphere in 2013 came from transportation.
There are serious threats to both human health and the ecosystem from this air pollution. By using clean vehicle and fuel technology, we can drastically minimize the amount of air pollution produced by our automobiles and trucks while also reducing predicted oil consumption in the United States by half over the next 20 years.
The elements that make up air pollution
Throughout their lives, cars and trucks emit air pollution, which includes pollutants from production, disposal, refueling, and driving. The distribution and refinement of vehicle fuel result in additional emissions.
There are two types of air pollution caused by autos and trucks: primary and secondary pollution. While secondary pollution is the outcome of chemical reactions between primary pollutants in the atmosphere, primary pollution is directly released into the sky. The main pollutants produced by motor vehicles are as follows:
Granular Matter (PM).
Smog’s murky tint is caused by these metal and soot particles. The greatest serious harm to human health is posed by fine particles, which are smaller than one-tenth the width of a human hair and can enter the lungs deeply. PM is both a primary (direct) and secondary (from hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxides) pollutant. PM pollution is primarily caused by diesel exhaust.
Hydrocarbons (HC) .
In the presence of sunshine, these pollutants combine with nitrogen oxides to create ground level ozone, a key component of smog. Although helpful in the upper atmosphere, this gas irritates the respiratory system at ground level, leading to coughing, choking, and decreased lung capacity.
Noxious gases (NOx).
These pollutants irritate the lungs and impair the body’s ability to fight off respiratory illnesses like pneumonia and influenza. They also aid in the development of particulate matter and ground-level ozone.
Carbon monoxide (CO).
This tasteless, colorless, and toxic gas is primarily released from cars and trucks and is created when fossil fuels like gasoline are burned. CO prevents the brain, heart, and other important organs from receiving oxygen when it is inhaled. People with chronic conditions, newborns, and fetuses are particularly vulnerable to the effects of CO.
Sulfur dioxide (SO2).
This pollutant is produced by burning sulfur-containing fuels, particularly diesel, in power plants and automobiles. The greatest threat to the health of young infants and asthmatics comes from sulfur dioxide, which can react in the atmosphere to generate small particles.
Hazardous air pollutants (toxics). 
These chemical substances have been connected to major ailments like cancer and birth abnormalities. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, 50% of all malignancies brought on by air pollution are attributable to air toxics released by cars and trucks, including benzene, acetaldehyde, and 1,3-butadiene.
Greenhouse gases -CO2 emissions. 
Pollutants from motor vehicles, such carbon dioxide, are another factor in the world’s climate change. In fact, transportation, which includes freight, trains, and airplanes, is responsible for around 30% of all emissions of heat-trapping gases, accounting for approximately one-fifth of all global warming pollution in the United States.

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